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Doctrine of Soul & Spirit

July 23, 2010

The Doctrine of Soul & Spirit
I. Introduction & Definition (1 Thess. 5:23) st
A. Soul: that which makes a human or animal body alive. In this sense, “soul” & “life” are
interchangeable. When the soul departs, the body dies (Gen. 35:18; 1 Kgs. 17:19-23) st .
1. . Æð Æô . nephesh #5315: soul, living being, life, self, person.
2. ψυχή psuche #5590: life, soul.
B. Spirit: that which makes a believer alive unto God. When the spirit departs the believer’s body,
the believer’s body dies (Ps. 146:4; Lk. 8:55; 23:46).
1. Çç.ø ruach #7307(7308Aram.): breath, wind, spirit.
2. πνε.µα pneuma #4151: spirit.
3. Important Note: ruach & pneuma are also used of the Holy Spirit, and spirit beings (both good & evil).
C. Other terms for the invisible part of man
1. Heart: the center. largely synonymous with “inner man” as the center of man’s physical, mental, emotional,
moral, & (if he has one) spiritual life. The heart of the unbeliever is entirely focused on self, and God must
create a new and clean heart for the believer.
a. á Åì leb #3820 (3821Aram) & á Èá Åì lebab #3824 (3825 Aram): inner man, mind, will, heart.
b. καρδία kardia #2588: heart, inner self, mind, will.
2. Mind: the intellectual center of man.
a. διάνοια dianoia #1271: mind, understanding.
b. νο.ς nous #3563: mind, thought, reason, understanding.
3. Inner Man
a. .Æ÷ á Æø qereb #7130: inward part, innermost being.
b. .σω .νθρωπον #2080 + #444: the inner being, inner nature.
(.ξω .νθρωπον the outer man (body))
4. Terms related to emotions: íé Äî Âç Çø rachamiym #7356 (#7359 Aram) & óðëÜã÷íïí #4698.
D. Body
1. ø È .È. basar #1320: flesh, body. (ø Ç. À. besar #1321 Aram)
2. σ.µα soma #4983: body.
3. σάρξ sarx #4561: flesh. The aspect of the body that is fallen & weak. The no good thing within the body that
motivates and manufactures personal sin.
II. The Soul: Development & Application1
A. The creation of Adam (Gen. 2:7).
1. He formed Adam’s body out of the dust.
2. He breathed into him the breath of lives (íé Ä. Çç ú Çî À.Äð nishmath chayyiym).
3. Man became a living soul (äÈ. Çç . Æô Æð nephesh chayyah, ψυχ.ν ζ.σαν psuchen zosan (1 Cor. 15:45) st ).
B. The soul is essentially the person. As a result, the word “soul” often refers to the entire person
(Lev. 4:2; 5:1ff.; 7:20; 19:8; Acts 2:41; 7:14; 27:37).
C. The soul is the invisible part of man that recognizes unmet needs.
1. Food & drink (Dt. 12:15,20,21; 1 Sam. 2:16; Ps. 107:5,9; Prov. 6:30) st .
2. Personal possessions (Dt. 14:26).
3. Sexual activity (Gen. 34:3,8; Song. 3:1-4).
4. Children (1 Sam. 1:15) st .
5. Intimacy with God (Ps. 42:1,2; 63:1; 84:2).
6. The Lord meets the soul’s every need (Ps. 19:7; 23:3; 63:5; 131:2; Jer. 31:25).
1 Broad outline developed from The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, 1979 revised edition.
D. The soul is the invisible part of man that expresses various human emotions and experiences.
1. The soul may be grieved (Job 30:25), bitter (Job 3:20; Isa. 38:15), troubled (Ps. 88:3), dismayed (Ps. 6:3),
distressed (Gen. 42:21), unsettled (Acts 15:24), and unstable (2 Pet. 2:14) nd .
2. The soul may despair (Dt. 28:65; Ps. 42:6), weep (Ps. 119:28), tremble (Isa. 15:4), and hate (2 Sam. 5:8;
Ps. 11:5)
nd
.
3. The soul may also rejoice (Ps. 35:9; Isa. 61:10), love (1 Sam. 18:1,3; Song. 1:7) st , be made glad (Ps. 86:4), be
delighted (Ps. 94:19), bless the Lord (Ps. 103:1,2,22; 104:1,35), and remember (Ps. 103:2; Lam. 3:20).
E. The soul-life of man is bound within the blood of his body (Dt. 12:23; Isa. 53:12).
F. The soul of believers differs from the soul of unbelievers.
1. It is purified for a sincere love of the brethren (1 Pet. 1:22) st .
2. It may prosper regardless of what temporal circumstances the person experiences (3 Jn. 2) rd .
3. It is strengthened through Bible teaching (Acts 14:22). It is pierced by diligent Bible teaching (Heb. 4:12).
4. It is anchored in the hope set before us (Heb. 6:19).
5. Is tended by spiritual leaders (Heb. 13:17), especially the Lord Jesus Christ (1 Pet. 2:25; 4:19) st .
III. The Human Spirit: Development & Application
A. Spiritual life is true life, beyond anything in the physical realm (Gen. 2:7; Isa. 42:5; Jn. 6:63).
B. Spiritual life is a creative act of God (Zech. 12:1; Heb. 12:9; 2 Cor. 5:17; Rom. 8:9-17) nd .
C. Unbelievers do not have a living human spirit** (1 Cor. 2:14; Jude 19) st , only believers have
spiritual life (Rom. 8:10; 1 Cor. 2:15; 1 Pet. 3:18; 4:6) st st .
D. Like the soul, the human spirit is capable of expressing human emotions and experiences.
1. The spirit may be anguished (Job 7:11), grieved (Isa. 54:6), broken (Isa. 65:14), distressed (Dan. 7:15), &
angered (rage) (Ezek. 3:14).
2. The spirit may also be rejoicing (Lk. 1:47), moved (Jn. 11:33), troubled (Jn. 13:21), provoked (Acts 17:16), &
refreshed (2 Cor. 7:13) nd .
E. One must have a living human spirit in order to comprehend the Word of God (1 Cor. 2:13,15) st .
1. Old Testament saints could learn the Word of God because the Holy Spirit taught them through their human
spirit (Job 32:8).
2. In addition to a human spirit, believers in the Church have the additional anointing of the Holy Spirit which
provides the maximum teaching possible (“all things”) (1 Jn. 2:27) st .
F. The human spirit is the place where our spiritual activity takes place.
1. Worship (Jn. 4:23,24; Phil. 3:3).
2. Service (Rom. 1:9).
3. Watchful prayer (Matt. 26:41; 1 Cor. 14:14,15) st .
4. Singing (1 Cor. 14:15) st .
5. Blessing (1 Cor. 14:16,17) st .
IV. Soulish vs. Spiritual describes the unbeliever vs. the believer in perceiving spiritual truth (1 Cor. 2) st .
A. The Soulish Man (Natural Man) (ψυχικ.ς .νθρωπος) refers to the unbeliever with a soul, but
no living spirit (1 Cor. 2:14) st .
B. The Spiritual Man refers (πνευµατικ.ς [.νθρωπος]) to the believer with a spirit capable of
learning God’s Word (1 Cor. 2:15) st .
V. Soulish vs. Spiritual describes the believer’s physical body (1 Cor. 15:44) st .
A. The soulish body is the mortal body that perishes (σ.µα ψυχικόν).
B. The spiritual body is the immortal body that abides forever (σ.µα πνευµατικόν).
VI. Summary & Conclusion—the concerns of the temporal physical body are negligible compared to
the concerns of the eternal soul (Matt. 10:28).