Doctrine of Old Testament Prophets

August 2, 2014


A. Definition.
1. There are three categories of Old Testament prophets who wrote the canon of Scripture.
a. Moses, the super‑prophet.
b. The office of prophet.
c. The gift of prophet.
2. There were also prophets who did not write, such as Elijah and Elisha. Their function was to communicate God’s message to a specific generation.

B. The first section of the Hebrew Old Testament, the Torah, was written by the super‑prophet Moses, who had both the gift and office of prophet. This includes the first five books of the Old Testament and possibly Job. There were three super‑prophets: Moses, Jeremiah, and Jesus Christ.

C. The second section of the Old Testament is called the Nebiim, meaning “the prophets.” The ones who wrote in this section held a prophetic office. They are divided into two groups.
1. The former prophets wrote the books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings. Samuel wrote Samuel. Kings was written by Samuel, and after his death by Gad, Nathan, and was finished by Jeremiah.
2. The latter prophets include Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel and the minor prophets.

D. The third section of the Old Testament is called the Kethubim, meaning “writings”. These writers had the gift of prophecy but not the office.
1. The prophetical books include Psalms, Proverbs, and Job.
2. The Megalith (or “five books”) includes Song of Solomon (always read at Passover), Ruth (read at Pentecost), Lamentations, Ecclesiastes (read during Tabernacles), and Esther (during feast of Purim).
3. The three historical books include Daniel (not regarded as a prophetical but as an historical book), Ezra‑Nehemiah, and I Chronicles.
4. The original Hebrew Canon had twenty‑two books corresponding to the twenty‑two letters of the Hebrew alphabet.